Posts Tagged ‘determinant’

Problem. Let A \in M_3(\mathbb{R}) be orthogonal and suppose that \det(A)=-1. Find \det(A-I).

Solution. Since A is orthogonal, its eigenvalues have absolute value 1 and it can be be diagonalized. Let D be a diagonal matrix such that PDP^{-1}=A for some invertible matrix P \in M_3(\mathbb{C}). Then

\det(D)=\det(A)=-1, \ \ \det(D-I)=\det(A-I).

We claim that the eigenvalues of A are \{-1,e^{i\theta},e^{-i\theta}\} for some \theta. Well, the characteristic polynomial of A has degree three and so it has either three real roots or only one real root. Also, the complex conjugate of a root of a polynomial with real coefficients is also a root. So, since \det(A)=-1, the eigenvalues of A are either all -1, which is the case \theta=\pi, or two of them are 1 and one is -1, which is the case \theta = 0, or one is -1 and the other two are in the form \{e^{i\theta}, e^{-i\theta}\} for some \theta. So

\displaystyle \begin{aligned} \det(D-I)=\det(A-I)=(-2)(e^{i\theta}-1)(e^{-i\theta}-1)=-4(1-\cos \theta). \ \Box \end{aligned}

Note that given \theta, the matrix

\displaystyle A=\begin{pmatrix} -1 & 0 & 0 \\ 0 & \cos \theta & -\sin \theta \\ 0 & \sin \theta & \cos \theta \end{pmatrix}

is orthogonal, \det(A)=-1 and \det(A-I)=-4(1-\cos \theta).



Throughout this post, k is a field and A is a finite dimensional central simple k-algebra of degree n.

Let a \in M_m(k) and suppose that p(x) = x^m + \alpha_{m-1}x^{m-1} + \ldots + \alpha_1x + \alpha_0 \in k[x] is the characteristic polynomial of a. We know from linear algebra that \text{Tr}(a)= - \alpha_{m-1} and \det(a)=(-1)^m \alpha_0. We also know that \text{Tr} is k-linear, \det is multiplicative and \text{Tr}(bc)=\text{Tr}(cb) for all b,c \in M_m(k). We’d like to extend the concepts of trace and determinant to any finite dimensional central simple algebra.

Definition. Let \text{Prd}_A(a,x)=x^n + \alpha_{n-1}x^{n-1} + \ldots + \alpha_1 x + \alpha_0 \in k[x] be the reduced characteristic polynomial of a \in A (see the definition of reduced characteristic polynomials in here). The reduced trace and the reduced norm of a are defined, respectively, by \text{Trd}_A(a) = - \alpha_{n-1} and \text{Nrd}_A(a) = (-1)^n \alpha_0.

Remark. Let K beĀ  a splitting field of A with a K-algebra isomorphism f : A \otimes_k K \longrightarrow M_n(K). So \text{Trd}_A(a)=\text{Tr}(f(a \otimes_k 1)) and \text{Nrd}_A(a)=\det(f(a \otimes_k 1)) because \text{Prd}_A(a,x) is the characteristic polynomial of f(a \otimes_k 1).

Theorem. 1) The map \text{Trd}_A: A \longrightarrow k is k-linear and the map \text{Nrd}_A: A \longrightarrow k is multiplicative.

2) \text{Trd}_A(ab)=\text{Trd}_A(ba) for all a,b \in A.

3) If a \in k, then \text{Tr}_A(a)=na and \text{Nrd}_A(a)=a^n.

4) \text{Nrd}_A(a) \neq 0 if and only if a is a unit of A. So \text{Nrd}_A : A^{\times} \longrightarrow k^{\times} is a group homomorphism.

5) \text{Trd}_A and \text{Nrd}_A are invariant under isomorphism of algebras and extension of scalars.

Proof. Fix a splitting field K of A and a K-algebra isomorphism f: A \otimes_k K \longrightarrow M_n(K).

1) We have already proved that the values of \text{Trd}_A and \text{Nrd}_A are in k. Now, let a_1,a_2 \in A and \alpha \in k. Then

\text{Trd}_A(\alpha a_1 + a_2) = \text{Tr}(f((\alpha a_1 + a_2) \otimes_k 1)) = \text{Tr}(\alpha f(a_1 \otimes_k 1) + f(a_2 \otimes_k 1)) =

\alpha \text{Tr}(f(a_1 \otimes_k 1)) + \text{Tr}(f(a_2 \otimes_k 1)) = \alpha \text{Trd}_A(a_1) + \text{Trd}_A(a_2)


\text{Nrd}_A(a_1a_2) = \det(f(a_1a_2 \otimes_k 1)) = \det(f(a_1 \otimes_k 1)f(a_2 \otimes_k 1))=

\det(f(a_1 \otimes_k 1)) \det (f(a_2 \otimes_k 1)) = \text{Nrd}_A(a_1) \text{Nrd}_A(a_2).

2) This part is easy too:

\text{Trd}_A(ab)=\text{Tr}(f(ab \otimes_k 1))=\text{Tr}(f((a \otimes_k 1)(b \otimes_k 1)))=\text{Tr}(f(a \otimes_k 1)f(b \otimes_k 1))=

\text{Tr}(f(b \otimes_k 1)f(a \otimes_k 1))= \text{Tr}(f(ba \otimes_k 1))=\text{Trd}_A(ba).

3) Let I be the identity element of M_n(K). Then

\text{Trd}_A(a)=a \text{Trd}_A(1) = a \text{Trd}_A(f(1 \otimes_k 1)) = a \text{Tr}(I)=na

and \text{Nrd}_A(a)=\det(f(a \otimes_k 1))=\det(a f(1 \otimes_k 1)) = \det(aI) \det(I) = a^n.

4) If ab=1 for some b \in A, then 1 = \text{Nrd}_A(ab)=\text{Nrd}_A(a) \text{Nrd}_A(b) and thus \text{Nrd}_A(a) \neq 0. Conversely, if \text{Nrd}_A(a) \neq 0, then \det(f(a \otimes_k 1)) \neq 0 and so f(a \otimes_k 1) is invertible in M_n(K). Let U be the inverse of f(a \otimes_k 1). Then U = f(u), for some u \in A \otimes_k K because f is surjective. Since f is injective, it follows that (a \otimes_k 1)u=1. Now if a is not a unit of A, then it is a zero divisor because A is artinian. So ba = 0 for some 0 \neq b \in A. But then b \otimes_k 1 = (b \otimes_k 1)(a \otimes_k 1)u = (ba \otimes_k 1)u=0, contradiction!

5) By Prp 3 and Prp 4 in this post, reduced characteristic polynomials are invariant under those things. \Box