**Definition 1.** A ring with 1 is called **simple** if and are the only two-sided ideals of

**Remark 1**. The center of a simple ring is a field.

*Proof*. Let be any non-zero element of the center of Then is a non-zero two-sided ideal of and hence, since is simple, Thus there exists some such that i.e. is invertible. Since is in the center, is in the center too and we’re done.

Obviously commutative simple rings are just fields. So only non-commutative simple rings are interseting.

**Note 1**. If is the center of a simple ring then is both a vector space over and a ring. So it is a -algebra. The term **simple algebras** is commonly used instead of simple rings.

We now give the first example of simple rings.

**Example 1**. Let be a ring with 1 and let be the ring of matrices with entries from It is a well-known fact, and easy to prove, that is a two-sided ideal of if and only if for some two-sided ideal of In particular, is simple if and only if is simple. So, for example, since every division ring is obviously simple, is simple too. In fact, by the Artin-Wedderburn theorem, a ring is simple and (left or right) Artinian if and only if for some division ring and some integer

Example 1 gives all simple rings which are Artinian. But what about simple rings which are not Artinian? We can find a family of non-Artinian simple rings by generalizing the concept of derivation in Calculus, as it follows.

**Notation**. From now on we will assume that is a field and is a -algebra.

**Definition 2**. A -linear map is called a **derivation** of if for all If there exists some such that for all then is called an **inner** **derivation**.

Note that if , then the map defined by , for all , is a derivation.

**Remark 2**. If is a derivation of then and thus Therefore if then

**Remark 3**. Consider the polynomial algebra and define the map by Then is a derivation which is not inner. The reason is that if there was such that for all then, since is central, we’d get which is non-sense.

**Definition 3**. Let be a derivation of An ideal of is called a –**ideal** if If the only -ideals of are and we’ll say that is –**simple**.

Obviously if is simple, then is -simple for every derivation

**Remark 4**. If is an inner derivation of , then every ideal of is also a -ideal. An obvious example of a -simple algebra is with

**Definition 4**. If is a derivation of then we define the -algebra to be the set of all polynomials in the indeterminate and **left** coefficients in , with the usual addition and multiplication and the rule The algebra is also called a **differential polynomial algebra**. Note that if i.e. for all then the ordinary polynomial algebra.

**Note 2**. So a typical element of is in the form where When we multiply two of these polynomials we will have to use the rule given in Definition 4. For example

Of course, we need to prove that is a -algebra but we won’t do it here.

**Remark 5**. Let and be an inetger. Then an easy induction shows that in we have

where So is a (left) polynomial of degree with the leading coefficient

In part (2) we will give three important examples of simple rings.

division ring is a simple ring

Yes, and that’s the trivial case n=1 in Example 1.

In general, by Example 1, for any integer and any division ring the ring of matrices with entries from is both simple and Artinian.